What are the reservoirs.
According to the design features, the water bodies are divided into:
• on small and ultra-small reservoirs with a finished lining of the bottom and sides, made in the factory (this is usually a film or a finished bath). Such reservoirs essentially belong to the basins, as they are completely isolated from the natural environment and have an artificial filling. A feature of their use in conditions of central Russia, in the presence of clay and loamy soils with a high water level in the spring, is the need for drainage of the area of such a reservoir. If this rule is not observed, cases of such reservoirs “floating up” above the surface of the earth are not isolated, which immediately violates the aesthetic qualities of the territory of the object;
• dam reservoirs, which are built on both permanent and temporary streams. The main purpose of their creation is the regulation of the channel flow, which in the conditions of central Russia prevails in the spring, the most high-water period. When regulating the flow for economic purposes, this makes it possible to use water for watering vegetation in the summer. Regulation of the channel flow makes it possible to create full-flowing reservoirs with year-round use.
Typical representatives of such reservoirs are the Tsaritsyn, Borisov, Kuz’minsk and other reservoirs on the small and medium rivers of Moscow. The volumes of these bodies of water vary from hundreds to millions of cubic meters of water.
• dug-out reservoirs, which are built by arranging a pit in the ground and then filling it with water. The size and shape of such reservoirs are different, depending on the views of the landscape designer on the relationship of water, plant and construction sites. As a rule, the size of such bodies of water is much smaller than the dam, which is explained by the much more labor-intensive nature of their creation. The volumes of such reservoirs vary from tens to tens of thousands of cubic meters of water with an average depth of 1 … 2 m. In order to clearly demonstrate the laboriousness of their creation, they use such an indicator as the ratio of the volume of accumulated water to the volume of earthworks performed to create the reservoir. This indicator is called the coefficient of efficiency of the device reservoir. In dam reservoirs, it usually ranges from 20 to 100 or more, while in reservoirs-digging it is almost always less than one;
• combined reservoirs. The very name of these reservoirs suggests that they were created using various techniques and constructive solutions. In Russia, this type of water bodies was known from the 17th — 18th centuries, although at present traces of combination cannot always be seen. At first, a dam reservoir was created, which always assumed the so-called natural outlines, at which the water edge repeated the outlines of the horizontal contours of the relief. This usually led to the fact that in the upper part of the reservoir was very narrow, approaching the width of the river bed or stream. If this form did not suit the architect, then the outlines of the reservoir were attached to an artificial form, pursuing certain goals.