How to make a pond with your own hands?
The most attractive thing in an artificial pond is, undoubtedly, its appearance and living inhabitants. The most profitable will look real or “live” pond. Living pond is an ecosystem that is represented by closely interrelated species of plants and animals. But how to distribute, who and with whom to keep what and how to plant.
Let’s start with the plants.
The selection of plant species diversity depends on the size of the pond, which allows you to divide the reservoir into more areas for planting, which means “settling” more species and, of course, your personal wishes.
All aquatic plants are divided into three groups:
• Floating on the surface.
• Plants of the coastal zone.
For the creation of a balanced ecosystem in the pond, it is desirable to provide for the presence of plants of all the groups presented.
First you need to decide in your pond will be moving water or calm. Not many plants love fountains and waterfalls. For example, beautiful water lilies prefer calm water, and a strong current will not allow them to become beautiful snow-white pearls of your pond. They are located as far as possible from the moving water.
It all starts with the coastline, along which moisture-loving (marsh) plants, such as hosts, astilbe, swimsuits, ferns, grasses, or sedges, must be arranged.
In the coastal zone look great, and grow with great pleasure, marigold, marsh calla, yellow and Siberian aira and derby. But it is better to have coastal or coastal plants in small groups (both plants of the same type and well-chosen compositions of different types) that will not obscure the beautiful view of your water body.
In shallow water, a little farther from the coast, the best place for real marsh plants, for example, holly reeds, rogozy, susaki, arrowheads and parts.
And give the depth under the possession of a beautiful water lily and its close relative of a pot. If the reservoir is of medium or large size, then perfectly combine the water lilies of different species. It will turn out to be a beautiful decoration for any reservoir from an aesthetic point of view, and collecting this kind will become a pleasant pastime.
But special attention should be paid to plants oxygenators, which serve as food and a good breeding ground for many species of fish, as well as prevent water pollution. These are natural filters or biofiltration systems. Underwater leaves are able to release oxygen, absorbing carbon dioxide and mineral salts, which hinders the growth and development of blue-green algae (providing “water bloom”). These species include turch, lagarosiphon, rdest, urut, tilley and buttercup. They are usually located in the deepest part of the reservoir. Care is systematic thinning and pruning to prevent their rapid growth.
Be sure to purchase several types of plants floating on the surface. Such as azolla, duckweed, water hyacinth, pistes and the like. Interestingly, they do not have rooting in the ground, but they perfectly purify the water, making it crystal clear. As well as the onset of cold weather, they are able to independently sink into the water column and even to the bottom (in the temperate climate zone). But if the spring sun warms, they again rise to the surface. Everything is good in moderation. For floating plants, it is recommended to “give away” 1/3, maximum ½ of the pond surface, otherwise your water body will lose its original attractiveness.
A few words about the beautiful looking weeping willows and willows. It looks great, but it is better to avoid direct hit of branches and leaves of trees in an artificial pond. For example, weeping willow leaves have a lot of tannins that are harmful to aquatic fauna. Any fallen leaves in the pond begin to rot and decay, which can adversely affect the color and smell of water, as well as the general state of the flora and fauna of your beautiful pond.
Typically, trees are located at a distance of 2-3 meters, which does not damage the development of their root system and preserves the integrity and health of your beautiful pond.
After planting and distribution of all plants, installation of filtering and purification systems, you can start launching the fauna. The most preferable and rather elegant look are frogs, tritons, turtles, bleaks. Of the fish, the most fashionable species today are Japanese carps, beautiful veiltails, irresistible comets and desirable goldfish. Two mandatory conditions for the normal life of fish:
1. The surface area of the pond is not less than 5 sq. M.
2. Depth from 1 m.
If everything is planned and installed correctly, then in the artificial pond in the summer you can keep the fish in the ratio and 1 kg of fish weight per cubic meter of water.
It is better to consider your water pets will help the replacement of sand and clay on the gravel bottom.
With the right balance of all the components of the ecosystem and artificial equipping with purification and filtering systems, your pond will live an ordinary natural life.