Depending on the location on the relief, in the riverbed, floodplain all water bodies are divided:
• on reservoirs on the relief (basically, these are reservoirs-digging), which, in accordance with the structure of the relief, can be channel, floodplain, slope and watershed. If we consider a section of the relief along the slope from the watershed to the river bed and the stream, we can distinguish its elements such as the watershed, the slope with terraces above the floodplain, the floodplain of a river or stream and the channel;
• reservoirs in river beds, which, in turn, are subdivided into channel channels and dams. Channel channels are characterized by the fact that they are arranged directly near the river bed (more precisely, in the channel itself), with the result that the flow of a river or stream passes completely through the reservoir. Sometimes such a reservoir attracts a landscape architect because there are no problems with the supply and discharge of water. But there are other problems with the so-called solid runoff, i.e. with suspended sediments, which, with a sharp decrease in the flow velocity, settle in the reservoir, as a result of which the channel reservoir acts as a settling basin. The result of this is the rapid siltation of the channel bodies of water, which is repeatedly encountered in real life.
When creating a dam reservoir of seasonal regulation, we can conditionally assume that the volume of annual runoff is equal to the volume of the reservoir, while the volume of each is equal to about 100 thousand m³. In this case, almost annual solid runoff is deposited in the upper part of the dam reservoir.
In the case of a riverbed reservoir, the annual liquid flow passes through the reservoir, i.e. the same 100 thousand m³. But the volume of the channel reservoir is many times smaller (for example, only 500 m³). Then the sedimentation of solid runoff in a reservoir per unit volume will be 200 times more, which is what is actually happening. The rational use of river flow in reservoirs-digging is to make a reservoir on a floodplain and separate it from the riverbed, i.e. the creation of floodplain reservoirs;
• floodplain reservoirs, which may have different types of water supply – by the waters of the channel flow, underground flow and combined. Typical floodplain reservoir is placed in the floodplain of the river, often for this purpose used the old lady. Staritsa is fed with additional water or through subsurface runoff or surface runoff during the flood period. In order to avoid littering and sedimentation, the cultivated floodplain is isolated from flood waters. For communication with river flow is one or two channels (supply and discharge). Gateways can be installed on such channels. With a low level of water in the river, a dam or pumping station can be installed, providing water supply for filling the reservoir and regulatory water exchange during periods of least water pollution. Such water bodies are promising and are currently being built in recreation areas: forest parks, on the territory of sports complexes, etc .;
• slope reservoirs that are created on the slopes or terraces of river valleys. Depending on the position on the slope, one can distinguish water bodies occupying the upper, middle or lower parts of the slopes. The position of the reservoir is determined by its purpose, as well as the available sources of water supply. In terms of construction, the differences between them are minor. Features of construction depend mainly on the specifics of the geology and hydrogeology of the object;
• water dividers (reservoirs-digging), which are arranged on the watershed areas. The main problems that have to be solved in this case are connected with the peculiarity of water supply. It is believed that there is no surface flow in the watersheds. On the classic watersheds, this is the case, but on the local watersheds almost always there is some part of the surface of the earth lying above the reservoir. In this case, there is the possibility of both direct feeding of the reservoir, and with the help of additional water supply and water regulation facilities. The same applies to underground power. With the presence of food areas located above the reservoir zone, a certain part of the underground flow can fall into the watershed-ditch. If necessary, forced feeding of the reservoir is carried out from some reliable source: rivers, reservoirs, wells, etc. Reservoirs are arranged in recesses or where dredging has been performed, or on elevations, embankments;
• reservoirs in the excavation – the most common type of reservoirs, which prevailed in landscape architecture in the past, prevails at the present time and will prevail in the foreseeable future. When constructing reservoirs, their relative independence from the location, arbitrary size and shape of the water area, as well as the possibility of using various types and forms of shoreline design are taken into account. The disadvantage of such reservoirs is their high cost, associated, as a rule, with a low relative efficiency of construction. The ratio of volumes of water and earthworks is usually less than one;